Newton’s 2nd Law Made Easy

The life of Isaac Newton

By Richard Westfall. Cambridge University Press, 1980. Abbreviated version of Never at rest.

Never at rest, a biography of Isaac Newton

Richard S. Westfall, Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Accessible online:

Accessible online, in chronological order:

Archimedes, Ψαμμίτης, 3rd century BCE; translated as “The sand-reckoner” in The Works of Archimedes, ed. T.L. Health, dover Publications 2002, p.221.

Plato, Τίμαιος, ca. 360 BCE, translated by Benjamin Jowett as Timaeus, Macmillan Publishing Company, 1949.

Aristotle, Περὶ οὐρανοῦ, ca. 350 BCE, often referred to by its Latin title “De Caelo”, translated by J. L. Stocks as De Caelo, 1922, Oxford University Press.

Ptolemy, Μαθηματικὴ Σύνταξις, 2nd century CE; translated by R. Catesby Taliaferro as The Almagest, The University of Chicago, collection Great Books of the Western world, Vol 16, 1952.

Nicolaus Copernicus, Commentariolus, circulated first half of the 16th century CE; translated by Charles Glenn Wallis as “The Commentariolus of Copernicus”, in Three Copernican Treatises, pp.1-2, Prometheus Books, 1939.

Nicolaus Copernicus, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, 1543; translated by Charles Glenn Wallis as On the revolution of the heavenly spheres, Prometheus Books, 1995.

Tycho Brahe, Mechanics of the New Astronomy (Astronomiae Instauratae Mechanica, 1598.

Tycho Brahe, Mundi Aetherei Recentioribus Phaenomenis, Vol.2, 1603.

Galileo Galilei, Sidereus Nuncius, translated by Edward Stafford Carlos (~1880) as The Herald of the Stars, edited by Peter Baker, Byzantium Press, 2004.

Johannes Kepler, Harmonice Mundi, 1619; translated by Charles Glenn Wallis in 1939 as The Harmony of the World, published on CreateSpace, 2014.

Johannes Kepler, Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae, Book IV, first published 1620; translated by Charles Glenn Wallis as Epitome of Copernican Astronomy, Prometheus Books, 1995.

Galileo Galilei, Il saggiatore, first published in 1623, translated by Stillman Drake as The Assayer.

Galileo Galilei, Dialogo Sopra I Due Massimi Sistemi Del Mondo, 1632; translated by Stillman Drake, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems: Ptolemaic and Copernican, Modern Library.

René Descartes, Discours de la Méthode pour bien conduire sa raison et chercher la vérité dans les sciences, 1637; translated by John Veitch as Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting One’s Reason and of Seeking Truth in the Sciences, 1993.

Galileo Galilei, Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematiche intorno a due nuove scienze, first published in 1638; translated by Henry Crew and Antonio de Salvio, Two New Sciences, The Macmillam Company, 1914.

René Descartes, Principia Philosophiae, first published 1644; translated by Valentine R. Miller & Reese P. Miller as Principles of Philosophy, Reidel Publishing Company, 1983.

Christiaan Huygens, Horologium Oscillatorium, 1673, translated as The pendulum clock or geometrical demonstrations concerning the motions of pendula as applied to clocks, by Richard J. Blackwell, Iowa State University Press, 1986.

Robert Hooke, Attempt to prove the motion of the Earth from observations, 1674.

Isaac Newton, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, (for short, “the Principia”) first published 1687, translated as Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, in Great Books of the Western World, Vol 34, William Benton Publisher.